Sounds of Navajo

From Navajo
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Here is an introduction to the phonemic sound system of Navajo, in the Navajo orthography and International Phonetic Alphabet (in backslashes).

Vowels

Monophthongs

Front Back
Oral Nasal Oral Nasal
High i /i/ ii /iː/ į /ɪ̃/ įį /ĩː/
Mid e /e/ e /eː/ ę /ẽ/ ęę /ẽː/ o /o/ oo /oː/ ǫ /õ/ ǫǫ /õː/
Low a /ɑ/ aa /ɑː/ ą /ɑ̃/ ąą /ɑ̃ː/

Diphthongs

Front Back
Vɪ̯ Vɪ̯ Vo̯
High oi /ʊɪ̯/
Mid ei /eɪ̯/
Low ai /ɑɪ̯/ ao /ɑo̯/

Consonants

Inventory

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plain Lateral Affricate Plain Labialized
Nasal m /m/ n /n/
Stop Unaspirated b /p/ d /t/ dl /tɬ/ dz /ʦ/ j /ʧ/ g /k/ ʼ /ʔ/
Aspirated t /tˣ/ tł /tɬʰ/ ts /ʦʰ/ ch /ʧʰ/ k /kˣ/ kw /kʷˣ/
Ejective tʼ /tʼ/ tłʼ /tɬʼ/ tsʼ /ʦʼ/ chʼ /ʧʼ/ kʼ /kʼ/
Fricative Voiceless s /s/ ł /ɬ/ sh /ʃ/ h, x /x/ hw /xʷ/
Voiced z /z/ l /ɮ~l/ zh /ʒ/ gh /ɣ/ w /ɣʷ~w/
Approximant y /j/

See Also

Return to: Main Page, Íiyisíí Naaltsoos

External Links

References

McDonough, Joyce Mary. 2003. The Navajo Sound System. Boston: Springer Science & Business Media. (https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-94-010-0207-3)

McDonough, Joyce. 2014. Dene Speech Atlas. University of Rochester, Department of Linguistics. (http://www.sas.rochester.edu/lin/DeneSpeechAtlas/)